Moscow ancient city
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the Moscow Kremlin for the Russian people. This is the Central and oldest part of the city and, of course, one of the most unique architectural ensembles in the world. This is the heart and soul of the capital of the Russian state. The Moscow Kremlin is the city-forming, historical, political and cultural center of the city. This is where the history of Moscow began.
The exhibition of models of fortifications of the Moscow Kremlin and its fragments from the reign of Ivan the terrible to the beginning of the XVIII century-the era of Peter the Great, introduces visitors to the Museum with the appearance of the Kremlin not as a pearl of world architecture, but as one of the most powerful fortresses in Europe, the walls of which no conqueror The word "Kremlin", according to one version, is Russian, and meant"fortress, citadel".
The brick walls and towers of the Kremlin that we see today were built on the site of the white stone walls of the Kremlin of Dmitry Donskoy and were built over a period of ten years (1485-1495). the Kremlin at that time was located on an island, surrounded by water on all sides. From the South – the Moscow river, from the Northwest-the Neglinnaya river (in 1819 it was enclosed in an underground pipe, and the Alexander garden was laid out on top). From the East, along red square to the Moscow river, there was a deep, water-filled moat (filled in in the XIX century).
The Tainitskaya tower was the first to be built. The architect Anton Fryazin thought out the presence of a well-hiding place and a hidden exit to the Moscow river in case of a siege, which is why the name is given. It was Anton Fryazin who for the first time in Russia suggested using a new material – brick-in the construction of defensive structures.
Trinity tower, the highest of the Kremlin towers, the only one to date that has preserved the Outpost-the diverting strelnitsa (Kutafya tower). The presented layout clearly demonstrates the gate complex of the Trinity tower as a fortification.
Arsenal tower of the Moscow Kremlin – the most powerful of the corner towers, was built in 1492 by the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari. Its strong walls are about four meters thick.
In the second half of the XVII century, the appearance of the walls and towers of the Kremlin changed. Impregnable fortress towers lose their harsh appearance. Elegant tents appear on them. The walls and towers of the Kremlin are covered with whitewash. The exhibition allows you to get acquainted with the stage of transition of the Moscow Kremlin from a purely fortification structure to the sacred center of the state, the residence of the Russian Tsar. The exhibition is of great interest to Museum visitors who have the opportunity to get acquainted with the appearance of the fortifications of the Moscow Kremlin on the example of detailed models, and thus expand their understanding of it.
Models of structures fortifications of the Moscow Kremlin were reconstructed on the basis of archaeological research, chronicle, documentary and visual materials.